Read about Search Operators for some powerful new tools. Handbook of philosophical logic. Ask Us: Live Chat. Gabbay, Dov M. SpringerLink Online service. Guenthner, Franz. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. In this sort of research, sin. On the other hand, much effort has to go into motivating a logical innovation.

## Logic - Wikipedia

Product Details Table of Contents. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and. From the very beginning of their investigation of human reasoning, philosophers have identified two other From the very beginning of their investigation of human reasoning, philosophers have identified two other forms of reasoning, besides deduction, which we now call abduction and induction. Deduction is now fairly well understood, but abduction and induction have eluded a View Product.

This book is concerned with Artificial Intelligence AI concepts and techniques as applied to industrial This book is concerned with Artificial Intelligence AI concepts and techniques as applied to industrial decision making, control and automation problems. The field of AI has been expanded enormously during the last years due to that solid theoretical and application Specific types of dialogue can be analyzed and questioned to reveal premises, conclusions, and fallacies. Argumentation theory is now applied in artificial intelligence and law. Mathematical logic comprises two distinct areas of research: the first is the application of the techniques of formal logic to mathematics and mathematical reasoning, and the second, in the other direction, the application of mathematical techniques to the representation and analysis of formal logic.

The earliest use of mathematics and geometry in relation to logic and philosophy goes back to the ancient Greeks such as Euclid , Plato , and Aristotle. One of the boldest attempts to apply logic to mathematics was the logicism pioneered by philosopher-logicians such as Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell.

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Mathematical theories were supposed to be logical tautologies , and the programme was to show this by means of a reduction of mathematics to logic. If proof theory and model theory have been the foundation of mathematical logic, they have been but two of the four pillars of the subject.

Recursion theory captures the idea of computation in logical and arithmetic terms; its most classical achievements are the undecidability of the Entscheidungsproblem by Alan Turing , and his presentation of the Churchâ€”Turing thesis. Philosophical logic deals with formal descriptions of ordinary, non-specialist "natural" language , that is strictly only about the arguments within philosophy's other branches.

Most philosophers assume that the bulk of everyday reasoning can be captured in logic if a method or methods to translate ordinary language into that logic can be found. Philosophical logic is essentially a continuation of the traditional discipline called "logic" before the invention of mathematical logic. Philosophical logic has a much greater concern with the connection between natural language and logic.

As a result, philosophical logicians have contributed a great deal to the development of non-standard logics e.

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Kripke 's supervaluationism in the semantics of logic. Logic and the philosophy of language are closely related.

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Philosophy of language has to do with the study of how our language engages and interacts with our thinking. Logic has an immediate impact on other areas of study. Studying logic and the relationship between logic and ordinary speech can help a person better structure his own arguments and critique the arguments of others. Many popular arguments are filled with errors because so many people are untrained in logic and unaware of how to formulate an argument correctly. The notion of the general purpose computer that came from this work was of fundamental importance to the designers of the computer machinery in the s.

In the s and s, researchers predicted that when human knowledge could be expressed using logic with mathematical notation , it would be possible to create a machine that mimics the problem-solving skills of a human being.

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This was more difficult than expected because of the complexity of human reasoning. In the summer of , John McCarthy , Marvin Minsky , Claude Shannon and Nathan Rochester organized a conference on the subject of what they called " artificial intelligence " a term coined by McCarthy for the occasion. Newell and Simon proudly presented the group with the Logic Theorist and were somewhat surprised when the program received a lukewarm reception.

In logic programming , a program consists of a set of axioms and rules. Logic programming systems such as Prolog compute the consequences of the axioms and rules in order to answer a query. Today, logic is extensively applied in the field of artificial intelligence, and this field provide a rich source of problems in formal and informal logic. Argumentation theory is one good example of how logic is being applied to artificial intelligence.

Furthermore, computers can be used as tools for logicians. For example, in symbolic logic and mathematical logic, proofs by humans can be computer-assisted. Using automated theorem proving , the machines can find and check proofs, as well as work with proofs too lengthy to write out by hand.

The logics discussed above are all " bivalent " or "two-valued"; that is, they are most naturally understood as dividing propositions into true and false propositions. Non-classical logics are those systems that reject various rules of Classical logic. Hegel developed his own dialectic logic that extended Kant 's transcendental logic but also brought it back to ground by assuring us that "neither in heaven nor in earth, neither in the world of mind nor of nature, is there anywhere such an abstract 'eitherâ€”or' as the understanding maintains.

Whatever exists is concrete, with difference and opposition in itself". In , Nicolai A. Vasiliev extended the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction and proposed the law of excluded fourth and logic tolerant to contradiction. Logics such as fuzzy logic have since been devised with an infinite number of "degrees of truth", represented by a real number between 0 and 1. Intuitionistic logic was proposed by L. Brouwer as the correct logic for reasoning about mathematics, based upon his rejection of the law of the excluded middle as part of his intuitionism.

Brouwer rejected formalization in mathematics, but his student Arend Heyting studied intuitionistic logic formally, as did Gerhard Gentzen.

Intuitionistic logic is of great interest to computer scientists, as it is a constructive logic and sees many applications, such as extracting verified programs from proofs and influencing the design of programming languages through the formulae-as-types correspondence. Modal logic is not truth conditional, and so it has often been proposed as a non-classical logic.

However, modal logic is normally formalized with the principle of the excluded middle, and its relational semantics is bivalent, so this inclusion is disputable. What is the epistemological status of the laws of logic? What sort of argument is appropriate for criticizing purported principles of logic? In an influential paper entitled " Is Logic Empirical? Quine , argued that in general the facts of propositional logic have a similar epistemological status as facts about the physical universe, for example as the laws of mechanics or of general relativity , and in particular that what physicists have learned about quantum mechanics provides a compelling case for abandoning certain familiar principles of classical logic: if we want to be realists about the physical phenomena described by quantum theory, then we should abandon the principle of distributivity , substituting for classical logic the quantum logic proposed by Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann.

Another paper of the same name by Michael Dummett argues that Putnam's desire for realism mandates the law of distributivity. In this way, the question, "Is Logic Empirical? The notion of implication formalized in classical logic does not comfortably translate into natural language by means of "if Eliminating this class of paradoxes was the reason for C. Lewis 's formulation of strict implication , which eventually led to more radically revisionist logics such as relevance logic. The second class of paradoxes involves redundant premises, falsely suggesting that we know the succedent because of the antecedent: thus "if that man gets elected, granny will die" is materially true since granny is mortal, regardless of the man's election prospects.

Such sentences violate the Gricean maxim of relevance, and can be modelled by logics that reject the principle of monotonicity of entailment , such as relevance logic.

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## Handbook of Philosophical Logic: Volume 16

Hegel was deeply critical of any simplified notion of the law of non-contradiction. It was based on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 's idea that this law of logic also requires a sufficient ground to specify from what point of view or time one says that something cannot contradict itself. A building, for example, both moves and does not move; the ground for the first is our solar system and for the second the earth. In Hegelian dialectic, the law of non-contradiction, of identity, itself relies upon difference and so is not independently assertable. Closely related to questions arising from the paradoxes of implication comes the suggestion that logic ought to tolerate inconsistency.

Relevance logic and paraconsistent logic are the most important approaches here, though the concerns are different: a key consequence of classical logic and some of its rivals, such as intuitionistic logic , is that they respect the principle of explosion , which means that the logic collapses if it is capable of deriving a contradiction. Graham Priest , the main proponent of dialetheism , has argued for paraconsistency on the grounds that there are in fact, true contradictions.

The philosophical vein of various kinds of skepticism contains many kinds of doubt and rejection of the various bases on which logic rests, such as the idea of logical form, correct inference, or meaning, typically leading to the conclusion that there are no logical truths. This is in contrast with the usual views in philosophical skepticism , where logic directs skeptical enquiry to doubt received wisdoms, as in the work of Sextus Empiricus. Friedrich Nietzsche provides a strong example of the rejection of the usual basis of logic: his radical rejection of idealization led him to reject truth as a " Innumerable beings who made inferences in a way different from ours perished".

This position held by Nietzsche however, has come under extreme scrutiny for several reasons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the systematic study of the form of arguments. For other uses, see Logic disambiguation. Study of inference and truth. Plato Kant Nietzsche.